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Luminescence dating is a technique that measures naturally occurring radiation stored in the sand.
Data culled via this methodology demonstrates that 130,000 years ago, the Arabian Peninsula was relatively more warm which caused more rainfall, turning it into a series of lush habitable land.
The northern half of Oman (beside modern-day Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, plus Balochistan and Sindh provinces of Pakistan) presumably was part of the Maka satrapy of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
By the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the satrapy may have existed in some form and Alexander is said to have stayed in Purush, its capital, perhaps near Bam, in Kerman province.
Despite interruptions, the Ibadi imamate survived until the mid-20th century. Ibadhism has a reputation for its "moderate conservatism".From the 2nd half of the 1st millennium BDE waves of Semitic speaking peoples migrated from central and western Arabia to the east.The most important of these tribes are known as Azd. 300 CE Semitic speakers appear in central Oman at Samad al-Shan and the so-called Pre-islamic recent period, abbreviated PIR, in what has become the United Arab Emirates Oman was exposed to Islam in 630, during the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad; consolidation took place in the Ridda Wars in 632.By 1719 dynastic succession led to the nomination of Saif bin Sultan II (c. His candidacy prompted a rivalry among the ulama and a civil war between the two factions, led by major tribes, the Hinawi and the Ghafiri, with the Ghafiri supporting Saif ibn Sultan II.In 1743, Persian ruler Nader Shah occupied Muscat and Sohar with Saif's assistance.
There have been discoveries of Paleolithic stone tools in caves in southern and central Oman, and in the United Arab Emirates close to the Straits of Hormuz at the outlet of the Persian Gulf (UAE site (Jebel Faya).